CLE: Interview Statements

I interviewed a pathologist at Royal Columbian Hospital. Here are three thesis statements I took away from my conversation with her:

  1. You have to be careful enough to complete a task well, but not so anxious about making mistakes that you are too paralyzed to do anything at all.
  2. If you like several different careers, figure out what you like to do outside of your career and pick a career that best allows you to have that in your life.
  3. You can do a lot of good for a lot of people by just encouraging them to take better care of themselves.

English: Eminent 2019 Introduction

“The sun is setting with no road ahead,
In vain I weep for loss of country …
Although I die yet I still live,
Through sacrifice I have fulfilled my duty.”

– Qiu Jin

Qiu Jin was a feminist poet and revolutionary martyr who defied expectations at every turn and was willing to put her life on the line to fight for what she believed was right. She believed that women’s rights and political revolution went hand-in-hand and advocated for both of these causes. 

Growing up as a woman in 19th century China came with a set of restrictive expectations. As a child, Qiu Jin was born into a family of the gentry, received a good education, and dreamed of becoming a recognized poet. She even got to ride horses and practiced with the sword. However, her gender became a major obstacle for her. From a young age, she had no choice but to bind her feet, learn needlework, and eventually enter an arranged marriage. At the age of nineteen, she was married against her will to a wealthy merchant. Her marriage made her extremely unhappy; her self-confidence was damaged, and she abandoned her dreams of becoming a poet. 

When she moved with her husband to Beijing, Qiu Jin was able to find more freedom. She made friends with like-minded women, unbound her feet, read feminist writings, and took more interest in China’s politics. She believed that China needed a Republic instead of an emperor. But meanwhile, her marriage was still taking its toll. Her husband gambled and drank heavily; the more educated she became, the more she noticed that her husband was uncultivated and had no interest in learning. She realized that she could not help her country politically nor socially within the confines of the traditional marriage and family. This motivated Qiu Jin to leave her husband and two children to pursue an education in Japan. This poem that she wrote in 1904 sums up her thoughts on the experience:

“Regrets: Lines Written En Route to Japan”

Sun and moon have no light left, earth is dark,
Our women’s world is sunk so deep, who can help us?
Jewelry sold to pay this trip across the seas,
Cut off from my family I leave my native land.
Unbinding my feet, I clean out a thousand years of poison,
With heated heart arouse all women’s spirits.
Alas, this delicate kerchief here,
Is half stained with blood, and half with tears. 

Here, she enrolled in Shimoda Utako’s Women’s Practical School. Qiu Jin became vocal about women’s rights, speaking out against foot-binding and advocating for improved access to education for women. She also connected with other reform-minded students and joined anti-Qing secret societies like the Restoration Society and Sun Yat-sen’s Revolutionary Alliance. She edited a journal called the Vernacular Journal (Baihua Bao). Upon returning to China, she started the Chinese Women’s Journal (Zhongguo Nubao). Through these two journals, she spread her message of both national and women’s liberation. 

In 1907, she became the principal of the Datong Sports Teachers’ School. In fact, it was a front for the military training of revolutionary leaders. At this time, she also worked with her cousin, Xu Xilin, to unify the various rebel groups. But after he was betrayed by another rebel and executed, Qiu Jin knew that imperial officers would be coming to her school. She tried to fight back, but ultimately failed; she was captured and executed. Although she did not live to see the fall of the Qing dynasty, her work and her brutal execution strengthened China’s resentment of the Qing government.

I was drawn to Qiu Jin’s story not only because of her actions, but also because of her complete dedication to her goals no matter the odds. Even though it would have been so much easier to go along with what was expected of her as a woman, she rejected the norms because she felt that they were injust to her and all other Chinese women. Right to the last days, even though she knew imperial officials were coming to her school, she refused to run. Instead, she stood her ground to the very end. 

A quality that I think we share is our indignation when we see or experience injustice. When we see something that we know is not right, we both want to do something about it. However, she had more courage to actually take bold action, which is one of the qualities I aspire to emulate. I also want to emulate her resilience when facing obstacles and her devotion to her goals. By all accounts, she faced many challenges and difficulties throughout her life, whether in the form of an unstable government or stifling gender roles. None of these obstacles stopped her from fighting for what she believed in. She was so devoted to her goals that she believed it was not enough to just ask for equality. Qiu Jin was devoted to the point of being willing to put her life on the line and die a martyr. These qualities also exemplify my goals in TALONS this year; while the TALONS program does not require any imperial executions or involve toppling any governments, everyone has to face their own challenges and work towards their own goals. Qiu Jin’s courage, resilience, and devotion are qualities that can be applied to anyone’s objectives, whether a high school student or a revolutionary. 

A comparison: 

Qiu Jin  Jasmine Wong 
Chinese  Chinese-Canadian 
Woman  Woman 
Expressed her thoughts through poetry and journalism  Expresses thoughts through poetry/writing 
Faced oppressive gender roles, subjugated to arranged marriage and foot-binding  Grateful to live without those gender roles thanks to people like her 
Cared about the injustice in the world and took action  Cares about the injustice in the world and wants to take action 
Fought against all odds for the causes that she believed in, eventually sacrificing her life  Aspires to emulate her bravery and resilience 
Feminist  Feminist 
Revolutionary  Not a revolutionary (at least for now) 


One of the barriers I might have to connecting with her is that she lived in China and Japan, and I have lived in Canada my whole life. Much of her eminence is connected to her effort to better her country, which isn’t really my country. I have not been directly affected by the government that she sought to reform. The simplest way to address this would probably be to make my research detailed enough to put myself in her point of view and try to see her government as though it were my own. It also helps that we have the same ethnic background. Second, she faced more resistance because of her gender. Since the 19th century, we have come a long way in terms of women’s rights. While I do not face the same obstacles that she did based on her gender, I am able to appreciate firsthand the positive impacts that she fought for. It is more complicated to find a more concrete way around this barrier, but it may just be a given since we live in different times. 

For the next step in my research, I want to get a better understanding of the big picture. I will find out more about the context of what she was fighting for, as well as exactly who and what she was fighting against. To do this, I will need to research some background information on the Qing dynasty and the political and social climate of late 19th and early 20th century China. It would also help to read some more of her poems; this may be challenging because there aren’t many poems available, especially on account of her early death, but a primary source would offer valuable insight into what her life was like. 

To this day, Qiu Jin is a symbol of national and women’s independence in China whose bravery, determination, and eminence will not be forgotten. I hope that her story captivates the audience of Night of the Notables the way it captivated me! 

Planning: University Comparisons (Biochemistry)

  University of British Columbia  University of Toronto  University of Victoria 

Grade 12 requirements 

  • English Studies 12 or English First Peoples 12 
  • Pre-Calculus 12 (minimum 67%) 
  • Anatomy and Physiology 12 (Biology 12), Chemistry 12, or Physics 12 

Grade 11 requirements 

  • Any English Language Arts 11 or any English First Peoples 11 
  • A language 11
  • Chemistry 11 
  • Physics 11 
  • Pre-Calculus 11 or Foundations of Mathematics 12 



High School Diploma with 6 Grade 12 academic courses, including English Studies 12 or English 12 or English 12 First nations 

Biochemistry program: 

Biology 12, Calculus 12, Chemistry 12, English 12, Physics 12 recommended 


For all science programs:
Approved English 11
Pre‑calculus 11
Chemistry 11
Physics 11
English Studies 12 or English First Peoples 12 with at least 67%
Pre‑calculus 12 with at least 67%
Two approved science 12 courses 
Cost  Educational costs for first year (including tuition, student fees, books and supplies): $7 761.22 

Living costs (on-campus, shared room, including meal plan, technology, health insurance, personal costs, move-in costs): $15 334.00 

Total: $23 095.22 

Sep. – Apr.: 

Tuition and fees: 

$7 700.00 

Housing and meal plan: $12 587.66 

Yearly textbooks and course supplies:  


Transportation, phone bill, health/personal care, other expenses: 


Total: $24 823.66 

For 2 terms – 

Tuition and books: 

$6 696 

Student society, athletics, bus pass, dental and health plans: $854 

Dormitory (economy double room with meal plan): $8 576 

Total: $16 117 

Reputation  THES Global Ranking 2020: 34th 

ARWU Global Ranking 2019: 35th 

US News Global Universities Ranking 2019: 29th 

Maclean’s Canada’s Best Universities by Reputation (2019): 3rd overall 

3,778 degrees granted in 2018 

214 companies spun off from UBC research 


Top school for reputation 2020 (Maclean’s) 

Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2020: 18th 

QS World University Rankings and the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) 2019-2020: 24th 

Times Higher Education: 16th in Canada 

CWUR World University Rankings 2018-2019: 363th (globally) 

Structure  Co-op and Honours  Co-op  Co-op and Honours 
Timeline  4 years  4 years  4 years 
Specializations  For second year, can specialize in biochemistry, biology, chemistry, microbiology and immunology  Biochemistry, other life sciences  Microbiology, immunology, biotechnology, epidemiology 


Planning: Job Comparisons


Salary: 300k/year (provincial median in BC) 

Education: Undergraduate degree (with medical school prerequisites), medical school, residency, medical examinations to receive certification, possible sub-specialty training, Maintenance of Certification Program Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 

Hours: Can set your own hours; on average 30-40 hours per week 

Skills: Communication, problem-solving and decision-making skills, time management, working with others and interpersonal skills, self-motivation, hand dexterity, business (if running own office), empathy

Tasks: Could work at private office practice, hospital, or teach and research in a residency; diagnose and treat conditions of the skin, such as acne, sunburn, psoriasis, and skin cancer; prescribe medication/treatment, provide screening tests, and perform surgical procedures such as removing skin lesions

Demand: For specialist physicians, projected increase of 1.7% 2018-2023, increase of 1.9% 2023-2028; 10-year job expected job openings: 2880 



Salary: 51k/year 

Education: Bachelor’s Degree in English, French, journalism, or a related discipline, may include a Master’s or PhD in English Literature or World Literature 

Hours: 35-40 hours/week (may work overtime to meet deadlines)

Skills: Writing and communication, critical thinking, reading comprehension, active listening, time management, attention to detail, organization, interpersonal skills

Tasks: Could work for a book publication, magazine, newspaper, websites, or freelance; evaluate the suitability of articles and manuscripts before publication, make edits to content, grammar, organization and style, verify facts, plan content of digital media, approve final versions of content submitted by staff, evaluate submissions from writers, review story ideas

Demand: Increase by 2.2% 2018-2023, increase by 1.7% 2023-2028; 10-year expected job openings: 1250 



Salary: 250k/year 

Education: Undergraduate degree (with medical school prerequisites), medical school, residency, possibly sub-specialty training, examinations to receive certification 

Hours: 48 hours per week on average 

Skills: Perception and sensitivity, empathy, stress tolerance, inductive and deductive reasoning skills, communication, patience, listening 

Tasks: Could work in private office, clinic, or hospital, independently or with other doctors, to diagnose and treat mental illnesses; may consist of personal counselling, psychoanalysis, hospitalization, or medication to correct chemical imbalances. Could specialize in a particular area, including depression, schizophrenia, forensics, bipolar, and dementia.

Demand: Projected increase of 11% 2016-2026 

Hamilton DOL: “The World Was Wide Enough”

Image result for burr hamilton duel


1. Character Development

Synopsis – Previously, in “Your Obedient Servant”, Burr writes to Hamilton, eventually challenging him to a duel. Hamilton and Burr duel in Weehawken flats, New Jersey; as Hamilton dies, he reflects on the legacy he has left on America, Burr shoots and kills him, subsequently realizing that he will be remembered as the villain of history.


Who – Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and their seconds

What – A duel

When – July 11th, 1804 (5:00 am)

Where – Weehawken flats, New Jersey, on a secluded ledge above the Hudson River

Why – Escalating conflicts between Hamilton and Burr


The main characters in this song are Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. The duel that takes place in “The World Was Wide Enough” is the climax of many years of escalating disagreements between them, such as when Burr defeated Hamilton’s father-in-law, Philip Schuyler, for a seat in the Senate and when Hamilton supported his enemy Jefferson instead of Burr in the election of 1800.

Hamilton’s wants are to leave behind a legacy, leave his mark on America, and, usually, to act quickly and uninhibitedly. Right before his death, he ponders what a legacy is, and how America “let [him] make a difference/A place where even orphan immigrants/Can leave their fingerprints and rise up” (Hamilton). He dies having fulfilled this goal, using his skill in writing to rise to the top and help form the United States. Something else Hamilton almost always does is acting quickly and confidently, charging recklessly through life. He demonstrates this throughout the play, such as in “Non-Stop” and “My Shot”, but in the duel, he does not. This is the one time he throws away his shot by aiming his pistol at the sky and it may have cost him his life.

As for his fears in this song, Hamilton distrusts those who seem to stand for nothing and is deeply aware about how the world perceives him. A major part of the background of his character and the duel is his and Burr’s differing ideologies. Hamilton does not like how Burr is more neutral and does not seem to have many principles. When asked why he supports Jefferson, in “The Election of 1800” he says that “Jefferson has beliefs/Burr has none” (Hamilton). Second, throughout the play, he thinks about his legacy and what other people think about him. He says, “If I throw away my shot, is this how you’ll remember me? What if this bullet is my legacy?” (Hamilton). He could be saying this to Burr only, or to everyone in general. He considers that if he throws away his shot, Burr’s last memory of him will be killing him. If he kills Burr, that bullet will be his legacy as well, and he will be remembered as the one who shot Aaron Burr. In the end, he decides to throw away his shot, perhaps because he thought that this legacy would be more agreeable than the one left by shooting Burr.

In this song, Burr wants to regain his reputation, keep his family safe, and to wait and cautiously deliberate his actions, except for this time. He thought that dueling would salvage his remaining political dignity, but instead, killing Hamilton made him infamous. Second, the line “I had only one thought before the slaughter; this man will not make an orphan of my daughter” indicates that if he knows it will to be him or Alexander, he refuses to put his daughter through the same hardships he had to suffer as an orphan himself because he knows how bad it is (Hamilton). Finally, in contrast to Hamilton, in the rest of the play, Burr almost always thought through his actions carefully and waited for the perfect opportunities. However, in this song, he is the one who rashly charges forward and Hamilton is the one who waits; Hamilton points his gun at the sky, and Burr shoots him, hitting him between the ribs.

Burr’s main fear in this song is being remembered as a villain. He knows that “history obliterates/in every picture it paints/it paints [him] and all [his] mistakes” (Hamilton). Although he was a good person, because of how neutral he always was in the public’s eyes, he is known most as the one who killed Hamilton. Hamilton asks, “What if this bullet is my legacy?”; the legacy left behind by Hamilton’s bullet that misses majorly affects Burr. When he kills Hamilton, the bullet becomes the legacy that Hamilton leaves for him. As soon as they confirm the duel, one of them is destined to be known by the world as a murderer. When Hamilton throws away his shot, he leaves that burden for Burr to bear, forcing him to take on that legacy of violence.


2. Historical Elements

Historical events and ideas: Burr-Hamilton Duel

A Summary of the Conflicts Leading to the Duel

Their relationship really began to deteriorate when Burr defeated Hamilton’s father-in-law, Philip Schuyler, for a seat in the U. S. Senate. The next major conflict was when Jefferson and Burr were tied for presidency in the election of 1800; Hamilton enthusiastically supported Jefferson because even though they disagreed, he did not an unprincipled leader to run the country. Although he called Jefferson “a contemptible hypocrite” in letters, he thought of Burr that “Great Ambition unchecked by principle…is an unruly Tyrant.” In early 1804, when he knew he would not be re-elected as vice-president, he switched parties and attempted to get nominated as the Federalist candidate for governor of New York, but Hamilton used his influence to make him lose again. He then tried to run for governor without a party and lost badly in April 1804.

That month, a letter was published that claimed Hamilton called Burr “a dangerous man” at a dinner party. In June, Burr wrote to Hamilton asking him to explain, which led to Burr demanding that he deny he ever said anything bad about him. Hamilton thought this would damage his political career. In response, Burr challenged him to a duel. He was opposed to the practice of dueling, and even said in a statement released after his death that “[his] religious and moral principles are strongly opposed to the practice of Duelling, and it would even give [him] pain to be obliged to shed the blood of a fellow creature in a private combat forbidden by the laws” (Statement on Impending Duel With Aaron Burr). 

What happened:

Hamilton and Burr left Manhattan from different docks at 5am, each rowed by 4 men to New Jersey. Burr arrived at 6:30, Hamilton half an hour later. They met at Weehawken Flats, New Jersey, as dueling was not strictly regulated there, on a secluded ledge near Hudson River. This was also most likely where Hamilton’s son, Philip, died. Hamilton likely had not fired a pistol since the revolution, which was not since 1783. Burr had been practicing his marksmanship leading up to the duel. The song says he was a terrible shot, but this is not really proved definitively. By lot, Hamilton picked which side he would fire from.

Hamilton aimed his pistol then asked for a moment to put on his glasses, which is referenced in the song, but he had already told confidants that he would throw away his shot by aiming wide on purpose. He also said in a statement that he wanted “to reserve and throw away [his] first fire, and [he had] thoughts even of reserving [his] second fire—and thus giving a double opportunity to Col Burr to pause and to reflect” (Statement on Impending Duel with Aaron Burr). This is also technically against the rules of dueling; he is not allowed to throw away his shot like that.

The seconds provided conflicting stories of who shot first and whether Hamilton missed on purpose or missed because of accidentally shooting the pistol when he got hit. However, Hamilton’s gun most likely fired first. Burr’s shot hit Hamilton in the abdomen area above the right hip, fractured a rib, tore through his diaphragm and liver, and lodged in his spine. He died on July 12, 1804, having survived about 31 hours after the duel.

Socials curriculum: Disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and societies

The conflicts that led to the duel were mostly based on power, how Burr was seeking it, and how Hamilton used his existing power to prevent Burr from getting it. Motivated by their differences in ideology, Hamilton was determined not to let someone with great ambition but without many opinions and principles into a position of power, lest he become an unruly tyrant. This power struggle escalated to the point where the only way they could think of to resolve it was through violence.


3. Guided question

A clash between two ideals

One of the major conflicts between Hamilton and Burr that led to the duel is Hamilton supporting Jefferson, his supposed enemy, instead of Burr. This is because even though Hamilton dislikes Jefferson’s politics, at least he has opinions and stands for something, rather than Burr’s decision first seen in “Aaron Burr, Sir” to not “let them know what [he’s] against or what [he’s] for” (Hamilton). The clash between these ideologies repeats throughout the musical and the American Revolution. On one hand, Hamilton, Jefferson, and the American patriots believe in bold, drastic actions and change. The patriots want independence from Britain, and they want it quickly and at whatever cost. They know exactly what they want and what they stand for. Hamilton represents the American ideal in many ways. He worked his way up from the bottom with his confidence and skill, he is opinionated, and he is not afraid to speak his mind. In “Your Obedient Servant”, he tells Burr that he “has always worn [his opinion] on [his] sleeve” (Hamilton).

On the other hand, Burr represents more of a loyalist ideology. He is patient, cautious, and “willing to wait for it” (Hamilton). Hamilton tells him in “Your Obedient Servant” that the reason people do not trust him is because “no one knows what [he believes]” (Hamilton). The Loyalists are similar in several ways; many of them did not want to take sides, wanted the revolution to come later, or were afraid of the chaos of the mobs. As Hamilton asks Burr in “Aaron Burr, Sir”, “if [Burr doesn’t] stand for anything, what [does he] fall for?” (Hamilton). Because of the magnitude of their differences, it leads to Hamilton “poison[ing] [his] political pursuits”, as covered in the summary of conflicts that led to the duel (Hamilton). 

History and being remembered

Since history is written by the victors, history remembers the rebels who fought for the revolution more vividly than it remembers the loyalists. For Hamilton, this means that even when he died, he died a martyr because he “wrote some notes at the beginning of a song someone will sing for [him]” (Hamilton). To him, America is a “great unfinished symphony” where anyone can make a difference and climb to the top, no matter who they are or what their background is (Hamilton). When he is gone, he is remembered more for his contributions to the formation of America than for all the other questionable things he did. Meanwhile, Burr says that “now [he is] the villain in your history” (Hamilton). The reason for this is likely that killing Hamilton is the boldest thing he does in the public’s eyes, so that is how history remembers him. As mentioned earlier, Burr was cautious and uninvolved in contrast to Hamilton’s confidence. Like the rebels and the loyalists, in this case too, the boldest and most vibrant actions, whether good or bad, are immortalized by history and the people who take those actions are forever painted in their light.

In summary, this song offers insight on the lives and privileges of those involved in the American Revolution by revealing what ideologies and values divided the patriots and loyalists and how they were remembered going into the future.



Socials: Independent Inquiry (Seven Years’ War)



PDF version: socials7yearswar

What led to British victory in the battle of the plains of Abraham?

Historical Significance

The focus of my inquiry is how James Wolfe’s British army won the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, a crucial moment in the North American part of the Seven Years’ War. The Seven Years’ War was mainly Britain and their allies Prussia and Hanover against France and their allies Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia, and Spain over land expansion, imperialism, and trade rivalry. In this case, it was Britain and France’s struggle over New France or Canada, also known as the French and Indian War. It is a significant question to ask because the Seven Years’ War and the Battle of the Plains of Abraham played a crucial part in shaping Canada’s history. After their defeat in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, France surrendered Quebec to the British. France formally handed over Canada to Britain with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, as it was not as valuable as their sugar colonies in the West Indies or fishing colonies in the West Atlantic and was more expensive to maintain because of its size and location. The conflicts between France and Britain and their struggle for control of the New World helped shape modern Canada’s biculturalism, even though Britain and British norms are still dominant. Had the French won instead, we would have kept more of our French roots as opposed to our British ones, similarly to modern-day Quebec. The defeat of the French in Canada also indirectly led to America attacking Canada during the American Revolution, as the British colonists no longer needed the military there. The American Revolution brought on the immigration of many British loyalists later on.


Cause and Consequence

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham happened the way it did because of how it connects to the bigger picture of the Seven Years’ War. The Seven Years’ War originated from Austria trying to win back the province of Silesia from Prussia. Austria was allied with France, and Britain with Prussia. The Seven Years’ War can also be seen as the European part of a nine years’ war between France and Britain as well. However, the struggle over North America originated in 1754 in Ohio Valley, which both the British and the French claimed to be theirs. A year earlier, in 1753, France built fortifications there in an attempt to strengthen their claim. Then, the governor of Virginia, a British colony, sent troops to ambush a French detachment, but they were defeated. Back then, war had not been declared yet, but Britain started planning an attack against the French in America anyway. They also planned to attack Niagara, Fort Beauséjour in Nova Scotia, Fort Duquesne on the Ohio River, and Fort Saint-Frédéric on Lake Champlain (now New York State). The only successful attack was the one on Fort Beauséjour. Meanwhile, the French ordered troops to reinforce Louisbourg and Canada, so they generally had more victories than the British. In 1756, the Marquis de Montcalm arrived with more French troops; soon after, Britain declared war. The Britain did not start winning until 1758, when they attacked several French trading posts. The attack on Lousibourg also enabled them to sail up the St. Lawrence River, setting them up for the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The consequences of this event were that Britain became more of a dominant force in Canada. The defeat of the French meant that British colonists no longer needed the protection of Britain’s military. This led to the attack of Quebec in the American Revolution, which then led to the emigration of British loyalists to Canada.

Historical Perspective

Both generals valued their duty to their own respective countries and their goal to defeat the other and conquer or keep Canada. Even though Wolfe was fatally wounded, when he found out that the French were retreating, he said, “Now, God be praised, I will die in peace.” He viewed the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the Seven Years’ War as something highly important and meaningful; this quote shows that learning that his army had successfully taken Quebec may have been worth sacrificing his life for. He passed away knowing that he did what he could to help his country. Wolfe’s “want” was to do his duty to Britain by driving the French out whatever the cost, and he achieved it. Before Montcalm’s death, he supposedly said, “So much the better, I won’t see the British in Quebec”. This leads us to believe he held great pride in New France and found some solace in the fact that his death would prevent him from having to face the fact that the British had conquered it. He likely viewed the Battle of the Plains of Abraham as a last defense to quell the British attacks on New France, which was ultimately unsuccessful. Britain had been wearing them down with other attacks for a long time now, and although they held off some of the early ones, they eventually began suffering defeats. The quote shows that one of Montcalm’s fears is seeing his country’s historical rivals finally take New France.


Social Studies Inquiry Processes

The British were able to win the Battle of the Plains of Abraham because of how they set themselves in a good position for the battle by reducing the French supplies and capturing important French fortresses and how they prevented the possibility of a retreat, got past the natural defense of the cliff at l’Anse au Foulon two miles upstream from Quebec, and made use of tactics such as volley fire while the French army had a more disorganized charge. Although the French had more indigenous allies and the defense of 53-meter cliffs, their army did not have as good a strategy; some historians say that Montcalm should have waited for reinforcements from French detachments instead of attacking right away. Their army was also mostly militia, or ordinary people not trained as soldiers, whereas the British army was composed of trained soldiers. All these factors contributed to the British winning the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and subsequently winning the war for control of Canada.